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sin

the act of violating God’s will; any thought or action that endangers the ideal relationship between an individual and God; any diversion from the perceived ideal order for human living; to miss the mark

Sin is the transgression of the law—1 John 3:4

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[Image available here]

The Online Etymology Dictionary reveals that the word sin comes:

From Middle English verb sinne, from Old English verb synn (syngian) “to commit sin, transgress, err,” and noun moral wrongdoing, injury, mischief, enmity, feud, guilt, crime, offense against God, misdeed,” from synn (noun) from Proto-Germanic *sun(d)jo- “sin” from Old Saxon sundia / sundion from Old Frisian sende / sendigia, Middle Dutch sonde / sondighen, Dutch zonde / zondigen, Old High German sunteon from the Germanic root sunta (Sünde / sündigen) “to sin, transgression, trespass, offense”, probably ultimately “it is true,” i.e. “the sin is real” (compare Gothic sonjis, Old Norse sannr “true”), from PIE *snt-ya-, a collective form from *es-ont- “becoming,” present participle of root *es- “to be” or the Latin sons and sont-is, both of which mean guilty. (The Germanic word may have been an early borrowing directly from the Latin genitive).

Semantic development of the word sin is interesting, and can almost be reduced down to the verb “to be” (which harmonises with man’s propensity to or for sin):

  • to be truly the one (who is guilty)
  • Old Norse phrase, verð sannr at ≡ “be found guilty of
  • use of “it is being” in Hittite confessional formula
  • same process yielded the Latin word sons (genitive sontis) “guilty, criminal” from present participle of sum, esseto be, that which is
  • (see also sooth)

Monotheistic views OF SIN

Old Testament Hebrew / JUDAISM (redacted from Wikipedia)

There are three Hebrew words that are translated to sin. The principal of these is chatta’ah (Strong’s # 2403), chata (Strong’s # 2398), or cheit. Apart from sin, cheit means to miss the way, to miss the mark, to fall short, to go wrong, or to incur guilt. To disobey God’s will and commands. It can connote a willful defiance of what one knows is right but more often refers to accidental opposition to the divine order of things.

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Pesha (Strong’s # 6588) is the second most common word for sin in the Old Testament and it is most commonly translated as transgression, but also as trespass, and carries a connotation of breaking an established rule. Think rebellion. [Romans 5:17; 1 John 3:4; Psalm 51:4]

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[Image: patheos.com]

A third word which is translated sin from the Hebrew is avon (Strong’s # 5771). It carries a connotation of perversion or depravity, and is most commonly translated as iniquity — the sense of willful or continuing sin.

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“Chatta’ah” [sins] and “avon” [iniquities] are used in parallel in Isaiah 59:2:

But your iniquities have separated you from your God; your sins have hidden his face from you, so that he will not hear.

Mainstream Judaism regards the violation of any of the 613 commandments of the Mosaic law for Jews (or the seven Noahide laws for Gentiles) as a sin. Judaism teaches that all humans are inclined to sin from birth. Sin has many classifications and degrees. Some sins are punishable with death by the court, others with death by heaven, others with lashes, and others without such punishment, but no sins with willful intent go without consequence.

Unintentional violations of the mitzvot do not count as sins, since no one can be punished for something he did not know was wrong. “Sins by error” are considered as less severe sins. When the Temple yet stood in Jerusalem, people would offer sacrifices [to specifically atone] for their misdeeds:

  • for the most part, korbanot only expiate such “sins by error” (sins committed from forgetfulness)
  • for the most part, korbanot cannot atone for a malicious, deliberate sin
  • no atonement is needed for violations committed under duress or through lack of knowledge
  • korbanot have no expiating effect unless the person making the offering sincerely repents his or her actions before making the offering, and makes restitution to any person who suffered harm through the violation

The completely righteous suffer for their sins (by humiliation, poverty and suffering that God sends them) in this world and receive their reward in the world to come. The in-between (not completely righteous or completely wicked), repent their sins after death and thereafter join the righteous. The completely wicked also cannot correct their sins in this world and hence do not suffer them here, but after death. The very evil do not repent even at the gates of hell. Such people prosper in this world to receive their reward for any good deed, but cannot be cleansed by and hence cannot leave gehinnom, because they do not or cannot repent. (This world can therefore seem unjust where the righteous suffer, while the wicked prosper.)

New Testament Greek / CHRISTIANITY (redacted from Wikipedia)

The original sense of New Testament Greek ἁμαρτία (hamartia) “sin”, is failure, being in error, missing the mark, especially in spear throwing. (Hebrew chata “sin” originates in archery and literally refer to missing the “gold” at the centre of a target, but hitting the target, i.e. error.) Archers call not hitting the target at all a “miss”.

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[Image available here]

The doctrine of sin is central to Christianity, since its basic message is about redemption in Christ — describing sin as an act of offence against God by despising his persons and biblical law, and by injuring others. Sin can be seen as an evil human act which violates the rational nature of man as well as God’s nature and his eternal law. It is a refusal to follow God’s plan or a desire to be like God (Genesis 3:5) — a loss of love for God and an elevation of self-love or concupiscence (a sin of pride) — and thus in direct opposition to God’s will. Sin can be understood as a mostly legal infraction or contract violation (and in which salvation, also, is viewed in legal terms) or, it can be understood as fundamentally relational.

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At the root of all sin is pride. —1 Timothy 3:6

Eastern Christianity views sin as relational, both between people and between people and God. Sin has severed the relationship between creator (who is sinless) and His created. Restoration can only come through acceptance of Jesus Christ and his death on the cross as a satisfactory sacrifice for the sins of humanity. Western Christianity similarly considers sin to alienate one from God, despite His unending love for His creation — original sin  entering the human world through Adam and Eve, and humans now live with the consequences of this first sin — alienation from God.

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[Image available here]

For God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son; that whosoever believeth in him, may not perish, but may have life everlasting.

Mesopotamian tradition / Islam (redacted from Wikipedia)

In Mesopotamian Tradition, Adamu goes on trial for the “sin of casting down a divinity”. His crime is breaking the wings of the south wind. Muslims see sin as anything that goes against the commands of Allah, a breach of the laws and norms laid down by religion. Islam teaches that sin is an act, and not a state of being. It is believed that Allah weighs an individual’s good deeds and against his or her sins on the Day of Judgement, punishing those individuals whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds. These individuals are thought to be sentenced to afterlife in the fires of jahannam (Hell).

a few Western colloquial SPINOFFS:
  • Sin-eater (1680s): a person who, through a ritual meal, magically takes on the sins of a household, often because of a recent death, thus absolving the soul and allowing that person to rest in peace
  • Live in sin: cohabit without marriage (1838) used earlier in a more general sense.
  • Sin bin: ice-hockey slang for penalty box, attested from 1950 (there are some less savoury slang connotations also)
In summary:

Ultimately, all sin goes against the will of God.

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[Image available here]

  • cheit: to miss the mark; to stumble (an unintentional sin)
  • pesha: rebellion (an intentional sin — an act committed in deliberate defiance of God e.g. “rebellion [is as] the sin of witchcraft” —1 Samuel 15:23
  • avon: iniquity ( an intentional sin — a sin done knowingly but not with the intention to defy God)

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[Image available here]

Unbelief can be considered a sin: “without faith it is impossible to please God” —Hebrews 11:6

48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect. —Matthew chapter 5

on-target

You’re up.

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More
References
  • Sin – Wikipedia
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Tyranny of the Majority: Lordship with a little “l” (or talking scat)

The Anglo-Saxon West—so goes the overgeneralising du jour—love to rule: they “love to exercise dominion over them”. After all, they do know it all. At least that’s the impression one gets, from inside the West.

Overnight experts they are in life, love, religion, as well as the art of wiping one’s ass. Never mind last week they didn’t know how to wipe their own ass. That was last week. Today, they’re experts. And not just experts on wiping their own ass. For such is their generosity of spirit that they are only too happy to offer advise on the best way for you to live your life, love, practice your religion, and guide you on how to wipe your own ass. And, what is more, if you can’t learn to wipe your ass the way we wipe our ass here, then you best be leavin’ on the next plane or upon some giant inflatable poop.

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Tear on the Dotted Line: the West’s sublimated advice

This is our way of life. And “they hate our way of life” is, in plain-speak, calling you are a terrorist. And this is their catch-cry. In the absence of a cause of merit, defer to default: “they hate our way of life”. Convenient.

And so from one side of the mouth they drivel this bilge while on the other, without batting a lid, they blog of minutiae in their own life—in a way in which no self-effacing person would ever hope to—under the bold assumption and vain presumption that it would be of interest. This is the level of hubris and self-aggrandizement now reached, thinking that people should be interested in effluent — their effluent.

But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments.

Look around … there are scores of blogs about what people had for breakfast or what they had for lunch; what they did after their lunch break and what they did before dinner; who they spoke to yesterday and who they didn’t the day before that. [No need to go far: look at your FB posts.] This is pointless drivel, and right when the world is plummeting down the proverbial much as the twin towers plummeted to Ground Zero that fateful day.

Redeeming the time, because the days are evil.

And if that shit don’t do it for you, perhaps dog shit will? And so they will tell you how they went for a walk in the park, with their dog, who passed a stool, and their dog went back and smelt it, and then they met someone at the park and lo-and-behold they too had a dog which laid a turd all its own, and, .. and oh how well the two dogs did get along. And, how wonderful it all was. And you really had to be there.

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[Image: pixabay]

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.

Innocent small talk? Perhaps. They do love their little facts. Yet as they talk scat, half the world is “going to the toilet”, courtesy of war, and a third don’t have one at all (a toilet, that is). But who needs a toilet when you ain’t got no meat?

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They’ll drive their car slowly because, caught in the moment, they were talking to someone on the phone and it really was important. “Are we holding you up?” you ask, as you hurry past to get to work, your incredulity surpassed only by their obliviousness.

And on (and on) it goes …

It’s the little things. It’s always the little things. They sound like meaningless trivialities, but only if you’re the majority. To the minority, one upon another upon another and upon another, perhaps hundreds of times a day, day after day, week after week, month after tiring month, they are nothing short of oppression. Welcome to the tyranny of the majority.

Despots of the past tyrannized through blood and iron. But the new breed of democratic despotism “does not proceed in this way; it leaves the body and goes straight for the soul.”

Life is lived to cater to the whims of the majority and at the pace of the majority. It’s an unwritten law. It is lived under the inborn presumption that there is only one way of life, and one culture — their culture. It’s not so much a culture of football and beer and hubris and pies and “good times” and little else (although it is certainly that), but a culture of expectations, assumptions, presumptions, works of commission as well as acts of omission.

This is the silent tyranny of the majority. It exists on a parallel plane to the observable universe. But it exists. And it leads to a Walking-Dead minority. Worse still, there is always a constant supply, within the minority, who, unwittingly, are only too willing to collude. Today we call it the West. (In days gone by, it was simply called Rome).

And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.

It lies within the inherent and wholly unacknowledged assumption in everything the majority do — yes, it is exactly about the “way of life”. But it is in the sublime and ridiculous and willfully ignorant way that their every behaviour impacts on those around them: from taking their sweet time because “I’m on a call”; to talking to a neighbour right where you alight from the escalator in the shopping centre; to greeting a long-lost amidst the backed-up traffic were the conversation turns to the “footy” … or how they thrashed the “Poms” … or … or those “ninjas mate” [women in veil].

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[Image is from that bastion of good taste, the Huffington Post]

The outcry when a “bloody ninja” stops traffic to talk to one of her own? She wouldn’t dare. This is ‘Stralia mate!

24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

The degree of racism is all-encompassing, complete. It is so complete that it’s invisible — but it’s there, hiding under the carpet at work, lurking at the stop lights, jostling you at the supermarket. It is as subliminal as it is profound; as omnipresent as it is omnipotent. It is their god. It’s what defines them and, void of anything else to hold onto, it’s what binds them. It is what informs their world view. It is their mindset and their “way of life.” [No doubt in non-Anglo dominated nations, the majority there enforce their own version of tyranny. But it’s the West that’s in the spotlight here and now.]

Love it or leave it. With us or against us? Blah, blah, and bloody blah.

Actually, I can love parts of it while hating most other parts. And no, I don’t have to leave it. It’s my country as much as yours. So I am free to feel about MY country the way I choose to feel about MY country. The sweat of my parents has toiled this land as much as any other, perhaps more-so. So too my own (sweat). I love this country. It’s the way you feel you have the right to treat me that I don’t much care for.

Tyranny of the majority in the United States of America is built upon the historically sanctioned use of (black) slavery and that in the United States and Territories of ‘Stralia on the historically sanctioned use of (white) penal servitude. Both are built on white-European imperialism and a veiled caste system. Those, in themselves are not by any means unique characteristics to these two nations. What is less common across the globe, however, is the absolute and unequivocal denial, at large, of any racism — by the media, by the national icons, by the faceless institutions. But the undercurrent is there. And the undercurrent is all consuming. The one saving grace, if you will, that America has (or at least had) that is largely absent in Australia (to-date) is a strong sense of faith among the majority. Australia, in the main, has no faith whatsoever to help redeem it from its own brand of mire.

25 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them. 26 But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; 27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: 28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. —Matthew 20:25-28 (KJV)

Jesus of Nazareth is my Lord, to whom I owe my life. He is my Shepherd and my Rabbi. My Abba is my Father in heaven. My guide, who shows me all things, is inside me — the Ruach HaKodesh. If these three (which are one) place me at war against the majority, at war against jingoism, at war against fundamentalist Islam, at war against pseudo-Christianity, or at war against all manner of wrong in this world: then at war I am.

12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.

You vipers. You worker’s of iniquity.

Why do I love this country? Because it’s my country, that’s why. (Does one need a better reason?)

I do hope you stay.

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apogee

The highest point in the development of something — a climax or culmination; the point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite at which it is furthest from the earth — the opposite of perigee.

—Oxford Dictionary

[Late 16th century: from French apogée or modern Latin apogaeum, from Greek apogaion or apogeios (diastēma), ‘(distance) away from earth’, — apo from + (gaia) earth]

First Known Use: 1594

This exaggerated (not to scale) schematic representation below shows the variation of the moon’s distance from the earth through its elliptical orbit:

For the Moon or an artificial satellite moving around the Earth in an elliptical orbit, the distance between the object and the Earth changes throughout the orbit. The point of maximum separation from the Earth is known as the apogee (from the Greek apo = away from). At this point in the orbit, the object is moving at its slowest speed (Kepler’s Second Law). The apogee refers specifically to orbits around the Earth (cf. apoapsis, the equivalent position of a general orbit). The point of closest approach between the Earth and a celestial object orbiting it is the perigee.

Cosmos

In reality, the moon’s orbit around the earth is not such a pronounced ellipse as suggested by the image above, but rather traces a much more compact ellipse (image below). Nonetheless, the principle of apogee and perigee hold true:

References
  • apogee – Merriam Webster
  • apogee – Oxford Dictionaries
  • apogee – Cosmos, Swinburne University of Technology
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Tumbrel

a farm tip-cart; a vehicle carrying condemned persons (as political prisoners during the French Revolution) to a place of execution

[Middle English tumberell (tomrel), from Old French tomberel, from tomber to let fall or tumble, perhaps of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German tūmōnto reel.]

First Known Use: 14th century

A (French) two-wheeled open dump-cart (tiltable backwards to empty its load without handling) or wagon

typically designed to be hauled by a single draught animal such as a horse or ox. Originally used to carry agricultural supplies, it was most often associated with the cartage of animal manure.

Their most notable use was taking prisoners to the guillotine during the French Revolution:

Teeming throngs watched with glee as the tumbril passed, carrying a morning load of former aristocrats bound for a meeting with Madame Guillotine. In the square, their heads would roll and the throng would shout itself hoarse at the repeating clunk of the bloody blade. “The Terror” ruled the country.

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“Sidney Carton and the little seamstress rumble off to their deaths in a tumbrel escorted by Jacobins.” Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. [Illustration by A. A. Dixon. London: Collins, 1905. (From the personal collection of George Gorniak, Editor of The Dickens Magazine.)]

Tumbrels were also used by the military for hauling supplies. In this use the carts were sometimes covered. The two wheels allowed the cart to be tilted to more easily discharge its load.

Tumbrel is synonymous with: farmer’s cart; farm tip-cart; dung cart; bullock cart; and instrument of punishment (metaphorical or symbolic). Other names are regionally specific.

Here are three dung carts:

Many take advantage of the dung cart’s robust qualities for other heavy work, such as moving boulders and smaller felled-trees:

Other word usage:

  • name for the cucking-stool (scolding stool or stool of repentance): a method of punishment in which the victim, strapped onto a commode or armchair, was paraded through town for humiliation. Later, in 17th century England, the instrument was attached to a beam extending over a  body of water and resting on a cantilever, whereupon the individual could be lowered and raised repeatedly into the water. This often proved fatal.


cart is a more generic word:

A two-wheeled vehicle drawn by a draft animal, used throughout recorded history by numerous societies for the transportation of freight, agricultural produce, refuse, and people. The cart, usually drawn by a single animal, is known to have been in use by the Greeks and the Assyrians by 1800 BC (although it is generally assumed that such vehicles could have been used as early as 3500 BC as an extension of the invention of the wheel). Carts have been made in several ways, with emphasis usually placed upon simplicity of construction.

jaunting car  (jaunty car, side car):

A two-wheeled, open vehicle, popular in Ireland from the early 19th century that was rather unique in having lengthwise, back-to-back or face-to-face passenger seats. The light, horse-drawn cart carried four passengers (although the earliest versions carried more). It usually had a narrow, forward-facing driver’s seat.  The driver was called a “jarvey” or simply referred to as “carman”.

sulky:

Originally a light, open, one-horse, four-wheeled vehicle with its single seat for only one person fixed on its shafts. It is thought to have been invented in the early 19th century by an English physician and was supposedly named for his sulkiness in wishing to sit alone. The sulky was adapted to two wheels and widely used in the United States by doctors and others who had to travel extensively by themselves. Today the sulky is used primarily in harness racing. Of light metal construction, the racing sulky consists of little more than a U-shaped shaft curving around the narrow seat where the driver perches.

A tumbrel, then, is the draught animal’s wheel barrow …

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Whether tilt-table and sprung or sulky or dung, find your favourite horse-drawn vehicle at Farm Carts.

References