The Portuguese had been systematically slave trading since the 1440s and by 1500 had claimed Brazil. Within 50 years they had arranged major sugar plantations and between 1550 and 1800, Brazil alone absorbed 2.5 million African slaves.
And yet, in 1800 it’s black population was still only one million.
The No-Nonsense Guide to World History – New Edition, Chris Brazier. New Internationalist. 3rd Edition, 2011