Rome

A FOURTH KINGDOM — The Terrible Beast

Preamble …

It is en vogue to label all things Islamic as relating to the end-time Beast system and, further, to say that one of the legs of iron of Nebuchadnezzar’s statue represents the Islamic caliphates of the Middle Ages up to and including the Ottoman, which fell but a century ago. Not to dismiss it — that interpretation is not without merit — but we will resist that line of inquiry in this short history.

Introduction

Emerging from an 8th century BCE small town on the Tiber River, Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean, continental Europe, and Britain. While the empire is long gone (at least nominally), could the ‘eternal city’ — the city that sits on seven hills — days’ also be numbered?

[See Daniel chapter 2 and chapter 7 of The Holy Bible (KJV)]

40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. 41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. 42 And [as] the toes of the feet [were] part of iron, and part of clay, [so] the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. 43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns. 8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots:and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

Myth and Legend

Ancestor twins of a Trojan prince who fled to and ultimately fought and conquered tribes of the central Italian peninsula, Romulus and Remus argue over the rights to the city’s name. And in the end, and as is so often the case, siblicide won out circa 753 BCE.

Capitoline Wolf — When Amulius overthrew his brother and grandfather to the twins Romulus and Remus,  Numitor, the former ordered the twins to be cast into the Tiber River. They were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them until a herdsman, Faustulus, found and raised them. [Wikipedia]

A Republic is Born

A dynastic run of seven kings saw victory over the northern Etruscans, before populous uprising led to the formation of a representative ruling senate. The senate, hitherto an advisory body to the king, was now the hub of res publica (“public affairs” or “matters of the state”). The senate appointed a consul who ruled for a year at a time. Society evolved into a four-fold structure: owned slaves; free but relatively powerless plebeians; wealthy equestrians (knights); and the all-powerful patricians (nobles).

Increasing military systematisation brought a crucial modification to the traditional Greek phalanx war unit — the revolutionary maniple. In this manner, the Roman Republic spanned five hundred years (510 – 23 BCE). The greatest challenge to Roman authority at this time lay across the Mediterranean, with Carthage. The unpredictable General Hannibal [the Great] crossed the Great Sea with war-elephants, invading the Italian peninsula across the Alps to her north. But by 146 BCE, Carthage had been completely destroyed.

On his own volition, the Roman senator and general, Julius Caesar, conquers the vast territory of the Gaul’s to the north. In 49 BCE, literally crossing the Rubicon, he famously moves on Rome to gain authoritarian rule. He campaigns south as far as Egypt. There he marries Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemy (from the Macedonian lineage of one of the four generals who ruled after Alexander’s death).

A political assassination in the Roman senate, Caesar’s exploits will be preserved in posterity in the calendar (until the switch to the Gregorian in 1582 — albeit with a month still named after him). Rome now sees her rule passed on through a series of emperors.

From here, her fate — and that of the known world — is intimately tied to internal as well as external warring.

The Roman Empire

Imperial Rome

RomanEmpire_117_svg

The empire officially starts with Gaius Julius Caesar’s successor — Gaius Octavius (Augustus).

Regnal Dates of the Roman Emperors (from Livius.org)

Note: Emperors of Gaul and Palmyra are not shown

First Century

  • 44 BC – 14 AD: Augustus (natural death) —
  • 14 – 37 AD: Tiberius (natural death) —
  • 37 – 41 AD: Caligula (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 41 – 54 AD: Claudius (poisoned) —
  • 54 – 68 AD: Nero (suicide) —
  • 68 – 69 AD: Galba (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Jan – Dec 69 AD: Vitellius (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Jan – April 69: Otho (suicide) —
  • 69 – 79 AD: Vespasian  (natural death) —
  • Spring – Summer 70: Julius Sabinus (executed) —
  • 79 – 81 AD: Titus (natural death) —
  • 81 – 96 AD: Domitian (murdered by courtiers) —
  • 96 – 98 AD: Nerva (natural death) —
  • Trajan 98 – 117 AD: Trajan (natural death) —

Second Century

  • 117 – 138 AD: Hadrian (natural death) —
  • 136 – 138 AD: Lucius Aelius (natural death) —
  • 138 – 161 AD: Antoninus Pius (natural death) —
  • 161 – 180 AD: Marcus Aurelius (natural death) —
  • 161 – 169: Lucius Verus (natural death) —
  • April – July 175 AD: Avidius Cassius (murdered by officers) —
  • 180 – 192 AD: Commodus (murdered by courtiers) —
  • Jan — Mar 193 AD: Pertinax (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Mar – June 193: Didius Julianus (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 193 – 211 AD: Septimius Severus (natural death) —
  • 193 – 194 AD: Pescennius Niger (executed) —
  • 193 – 197 AD: Clodius Albinus (killed in action) —

Third Century

  • 193 – 211 AD: Septimius Severus
  • 211 – 217 AD: Caracalla (murdered by Macrinus) —
  • Feb – Dec 211: Geta (murdered by Caracalla) —
  • 217 – 218 AD: Macrinus (executed) —
  • 217 – 218 AD: Diadumenianus (executed) —
  • 218 – 222 AD: Heliogabalus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 222 – 235 AD: Severus Alexander (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 235 – 238 AD: Maximinus Thrax (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 1 Jan – 20 Jan 238 AD: Gordian I (suicide) —
  • 1 Jan – 20 Jan 238 AD: Gordian II (killed in action) —
  • Feb – May 238 AD: Balbinus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Feb – May 238 AD: Pupienus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 238 – 244 AD: Gordian III (killed in action) —
  • 244 – 249 AD: Phillipus the Arab (killed in action) —
  • 249 – 251 AD: Decius (killed in action) —
  • Jun – Jul 251 AD: Hostilianus (plague) —
  • 251 – 253 AD: Trebonian the Gaul (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Aug – Oct 253: Aemilian (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 253 – 260 AD: Valerian (died in captivity) —
  • 253 – 268 AD: Gallienus (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 268 — 270 AD: Claudius II Gothicus (natural death) —
  • Sep 270 AD: Quintillus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 270 – 275 AD: Aurelian (murdered by his secretary) —
  • 275 – 276 AD: Tacitus (uncertain) —
  • Jul — Sep 276 AD: Florian (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 276 – 282 AD: Probus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 282 – 283 AD: Carus (struck by lightning) —
  • 283 – 285 AD: Carinus (killed by an officer) —
  • 283 – 284 AD: Numerian (murdered by his father-in-law) —
  • 284 – 305 AD: Diocletian (resigned) —
  • 286 – 305 AD: Maximian (resigned) —

Fourth Century

  • 305 – 306: Constantius I Chlorus (natural death) —
  • 305 – 311: Galerius (natural death) —
  • 306 — 307: Severus (murdered) —
  • 306 – 337: Constantine the Great (natural death) —
  • 306 – 312: Maxentius (killed in action) —
  • 306 – 308: Maximian (taken captive, suicide) —
  • 308 – 324: Licinius (executed) —
  • 310 – 313: Maximinus Daia (natural death) —
  • 337 – 340: Constantine II (killed in action) —
  • 337 – 350: Constans (murdered by courtiers) —
  • 337 — 361: Constantius II (natural death) —
  • 360 – 363: Julian the Apostate (killed in action) —
  • 364 – 375: Valentinian I (natural death) —
  • 364 – 378: Valens (killed in action) —
  • 367 – 383: Gratian (murdered by Magnus Maximus) —
  • 375 – 392: Valentinian II (murdered by his general Arbogast) —
  • 379 – 395: Theodosius I (natural death) —
  • 383 – 388: Magnus Maximus (executed) —
  • 383 – 408: Arcadius (natural death) —
  • 393 – 423: Honorius (natural death) —

Fifth Century (West)

  • 393 – 423: Honorius (natural death) —
  • 423 – 425: Valentinian III (murdered) —
  • Mar – May 455: Petronius Maximus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 455 – 456: Avitus (resigned) —
  • 457 – 461: Majorian (resigned) —
  • 461 – 465: Libius Severus (murdered) —
  • 467 – 472: Anthemius (murdered by Ricimer) —
  • Apr – Nov 472: Olybrius (natural death) —
  • 473 – 474: Glycerius
  • 474 – 475: Julius Nepos (forced to resign and made bishop) —
  • 475 – 476: Romulus Augustulus (forced to resign) —

Byzantine

  • Arcadius
  • Theodosius II
  • Marcian
  • Leo I Thrax Magnus
  • Leo II
  • Zeno I
  • Anastasius I
  • Justin I
  • Justinian I
  • Justin II
  • Tiberius II
  • Maurice
  • Phocas
  • Heraclius

From Augustus to Constantine the Great

Augustus adds much territory to the empire during a golden age of otherwise peace and prosperity. Claudius conquers Britain, Titus destroys Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem (ca. 70 AD), Trajan extends the empire to its zenith, and Hadrian walls off an increasingly too-large-to-defend empire in northern Britain from barbarians. Diocletian split the empire into east and west before it is reunited under Constantine, with its capital Byzantium (present-day Constantinople), following his epiphany before the Battle of Milvian Bridge. He then officiates the Council of Nicaea.

Barbarians at the Gate: fall of Rome

Meanwhile, increasing hordes of barbarians breach the empire to the north (before Odoacer finally conquers Rome in AD 476), while the eastern half of the empire survives another thousand years. Its last great emperor is credited with the eponymous Justinian (law) Code and the Santa Sophia church. But the final Emperor, Constantine XI, dies at the hands of the Ottomans who take the city and with it the empire, introducing the world to its caliphate.

Romeinse-rijk-3e-2e-eeuw-vC-Access-Foundation_christipedia.nl

Time-line:

ROMAN EMPIRE IN PSHOP copy photo ROMANEMPIREINPSHOPcopy.jpg

Timeline_of_the_Roman_Empire_by_RyukonoTsuki Roman Empire Timeline


Rome in the End of Days
  • Numbers 24:12-19
  • Ezekiel chapter 35
  • The Book of Joel, chapter 4
  • Amos 1:11-12
  • The Book of Obadiah

References
Appendix
Advertisements

2 Replies to “Rome”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s