The Intertestamental Period of some 400 years, between the Old Testament and the Gospels of the New Testament, is a critical period for the Jews of antiquity. This history lends greatly to the understanding of scripture.

It is a time of Hellenisation of Judea, Ptolemisation, a Syrian period, a counter revolt by the Hasmoneans and then the Maccabees, before holding fast to Judaism through the strict interpretations offered by Pharisaism, Sadduceism, and to a lesser extent the Essenes.

Then followed the Roman occupation, the Herodians, and the Zealots.

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