Togarmah [Tōgär’mah]—all bone or strong. The third son of Gomer, son of Japheth, his brothers being Ashkenaz and Riphath (Gen. 10:3; 1 Chron. 1:6; Ezek. 27:14; 38:6).
Perhaps there is prophetic significance attached to Togarmah and “the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands” (Ezek. 38:6). Jewish writers of the past usually wrote of the “Turks” as Togarmah, and the Armenians as “The House of Targon.” It is not difficult, therefore, to identify Togarmah as Armenia or Turkey, the people of which assert their descendancy from Targon, or the Togarmah of Scripture.
The ultimate alliance of Turkey, according to prophecy, is with the Northern Confederacy Ezekiel defines. Dr. Sale-Harrison observes: “It is interesting to note that in Scripture “The King of the North” is called “The Old Assyrian” and apparently arises out of the present “Turkish territory.” In the final alignment of the nations then, Togarmah will be allied with the north.
TOGARMAH (tō-ga’ma, Heb. tôgharmâh). A man who appears in two genealogies as a son of Gomer (Gen.10.3; 1Chr.1.6), who is a descendant of Japheth. Ezek.27.14 states that traded “work horses, war horses and mules” for Tyrian merchandise. Later the prophet lists among the forces of Gog: “Beth Togarmah from the far north with all its troops” (Ezek.38.6). Togarmah is found in the Hittite texts from Boghaz Koi, and some Assyriologists equate Togarmah with Til-Garimmu, a province between the Euphrates River and the Antitaurus Mountains. It appears, however, that the prophet may refer to a people or nation more distant from Palestine.——CEDV
TOGARMAH tō gär’ mə (תֹּגַרְמָֽה). A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth. He was the progenitor of the Japhetic nation that bears his name (Gen 10:3; 1 Chron 1:6). Togarmah appears twice in Ezekiel where that nation is described as carrying on extensive trade with Tyre in horses, horsemen, and mules (Ezek 27:14). It is mentioned also as one of the allies of Magog in association with Gomer, Persia, Cush, and Put (38:6). Josephus regarded them as the Phrygians, who were noted for their horses. Assyrian inscrs., however, mention a Til-garimmu, which in Hitt. is Tegarama and probably carries on the name of the ancient Togarmah. This city was located in E Cappadocia. Since Ezekiel places Togarmah in the N (38:6) and in association with Gomer, it is quite probable that Togarmah is to be located N of Pal. in the area SE of the Black Sea. If it is to be understood as identical with Til-garimmu, it was destroyed by the Assyrians in 695 b.c.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1915)
(~togharmah]; Thorgama, Thergama, Thurgama, Thurgaba; Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Thorgoma):
1. Its Forms: A Suggested Identification:
The 3rd son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, his brothers being Ashkenaz and Riphath (Ge 10:3). The meaning of the name is doubtful. Grimm (Gesch. deutsch. Sprache, II, 325) suggests Sanskr. toka, “tribe,” and arma = Armenia. Etymological and other difficulties stand in the way of French Delitzsch’s identification of Togarmah with the Assyrian Til-garimmu, “hill of Garimmu,” or, possibly, “of the bone-heap,” a fortress of Melitene, on the borders of Tabal (Tubal).
2. Probably Armenia or a Tract Connected Therewith:
In Eze 27:14 Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in 38:6 it is said to have supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia). In the Assyrian inscriptions horses came from Kusu (neighbourhood of Cappadocia), Andia and Mannu, to the North of Assyria. Both Kiepert and Dillmann regard Togarmah as having been Southeastern Armenia, and this is at present the general opinion. The ancient identification of their country with Togarmah by the Armenians, though correct, is probably due to the Septuagint transposition of “g” and “r” (Thorgama for Togarmah), which has caused them to see therein the name of Thorgom, father of Haik, the founder of their race (Moses of Khor, I, 4, secs. 9-11). Eze 27:14 (Swete) alone has “g” before “r”: Thaigrama. The name “Armenia” dates from the 5th century BC.
- A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth ( Genesis 10:3 ).
- A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:14 ; 38:6 ); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1).
Togarmah is another country aligned with Russia. He was a son of Gomer, son of Japheth (Genesis 10:1-3), known in Assyrian records as Tilgarimmu, a city state in Eastern Anatolia (Asia Minor, modern Turkey), more specifically “the south-eastern part of Turkey near the Syrian border.” This identification is generally acknowledged by all. Once again, we have a region in present-day Turkey.
Armenia and Turkey
Togarmah’s earliest descendants settled in Armenia. Hittite documents reveal that in the 14th century BC, the then region of Tegarama (which lay between Carchemish and Haran), was sacked by the enemy from ‘Isuwa’ (beyond the Euphrates). The records of both Sargon II and Sennacherib mention the city of Til-gari-manu, the capital of Kammanu which lay on the border of Tabal. Til-gari-manu lay some thirty miles due east of present-day Malatya (known today as Gürün, anciently Gauraena), and was not finally destroyed until the year 695 BC. It was after the destruction of Til-gari-manu that the descendants of Togarmah became lost in obscurity. In line with the Assyrian policy of that time, the survivors were uprooted and transported to other lands within the Assyrian empire. The name was given as Thrugramma by Josephus. Gomer was the founder of the Cimmerians who settled originally on the shores of the Caspian Sea. They were later driven away by the Elamites. At the time of the Babylonian Exile, the Jews knew them as the tribes that dwelt in the ‘uppermost parts of the north’ (Eze 38:6). The Assyrians referred to them as the Gimirraya. Esarhaddon (681-668 BC) records his defeat of the Gimirrai, whilst King Ashurbanipal tells us in his records of the Cimmerian invasion of Lydia in the days of the Lydian king Gugu around the year 660 BC. —Bill Cooper
Compare and contrast to this, at biblicalstudies.com:
Togarmah was a descendant of Noah through Japheth then Gomer (Gen.10:1-3). He is know to Assyrian records as Tilgarimmu (TLGRM). The inserted “L” is not uncommon and, more than likely, was silent. Tilgarimmu was a city state in Eastern Anatolia (Asia Minor, modern Turkey), more specifically, as Ryrie states, “the southeastern part of Turkey near the Syrian border.” This identification is generally acknowledged by all.
… GMR is well known to the ancient world as Gimarrai (GMR) of north central Asia Minor (Cappadocia). These people are also known as the Cimmerians (KMR, note the change in gutturals from “G” to “C”). This seems to be the simplest, most obvious interpretation.
Turkey is no small or weak country. A population of 75 million supports the second largest standing military force in NATO, of 500,000. Turkey joined the NATO alliance in 1952 after years of secularisation beginning with Kamal Ataturk in the early part of last century. More recently, Turkish governance has shown Islamist tendencies. In the decade up to 2008, for instance, Turkey had the most judgements of human rights violations than any other member state of the Council of Europe. The Erdogan-led government instituted significant restrictions to press freedoms, and for the last two consecutive years (2016 and 2017) more journalists have been imprisoned in Turkey than anywhere else in the world.
The 500,000-strong Turkish army would massacre the 40,000 Hezbollah.
Turkey is a fanatic Sunni country with large Shiite (31%) and Kurdish (25%) minorities, and is made up of not just Anatolia, but considers itself also the leader of the six Turkic countries (“Stans”) that broke away from the former Soviet Union; not to mention the tens of millions of Turks living in Western Europe.
As an aside, the Kurds of Turkey could break away to amalgamate with the Kurds of Iraq and Syria and perhaps also Iran’s Kurds to create a Kurdistan. The Kurds and the Jews are friendly to each other; but Turkey is going the way of Saudi Arabia and of Hamas (in Gaza).
The third and final rise of the Turkish Empire …
The Turks were nomads from Mongolia, the area occupied today by the countries known as the “Stans”, and slowly encroached upon Anatolia, a land ruled by the Byzantine Empire for 1000 years — after Rome collapsed in 453 at the hands of the Goths and Visigoths and Huns, the greatness of Rome was transferred to the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Greek Orthodox Church (Byzantine Empire) lasted 1000 years, and today there are few Christians in Turkey — that is, 1000 years later in 1453, the Turks defeated the Byzantines; and the Turks have ethnically cleansed the lands of its Christians.
There are 20,000 Jews in Turkey and the two countries have a good relationship, including weapons trade of over 1 billion dollars a year (from Israel to the Turks). But something has been changing. And it’s not a good change.
Turkey ethnically cleansed 1.5 million (one third) Armenians in 1914. The lack of response of the world gave Hitler the impetus to later carry out his plans, killing one-third of all Jews on earth. Unlike the Germans, the Turks refuse to recognise the sin of genocide. Furthermore, the Turks war crimes include the ethnic cleansing of the Kurds and refusing to give 20 million Kurds a state of their own.
And the world chastises Israel for failing to give 1 million Palestinians a state of their own and all when 70% of Jordan is Palestinian, and they have a second Palestinian state in Gaza ruled by the Hamas. What they want now is another Palestinian state ruled by the PLO/Fatah, in the West Bank.
Iran, Turkey, and Morocco are the last three Jewish Diasporas in the Islamic world — Turkey for not much longer.
Arab Invasions: Muhammad starts his Islamic wars …
The Arabs conquered Spain, Portugal, and France in 711 after conquering North Africa, the Middle East, and Arabia; massacring Jews and Christians who did not convert to Islam while those allowed to survive were second-class citizens (dhimmi). During the time of the Crusades — rise of Seljuk and later Ottoman Turks and then wave after wave of tribesman from the Steppes, and during the 13th-14th centuries the Turks and Mongols converted to Islam, and by 1453 a new power was on the scene — Islamic, Ottoman Turkey.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain expelled the Jews in 1492, because the Jews were aligned with the Muslims — at that time in history the Moroccan and Turkish Muslims were better to the Jews than the Catholics were. Spain had three Islamic invasions (and almost a fourth): the 711 Arab invasions; an 11th Century Almohadit (Moroccan) invasion; and a 12th Century Almohad (Moroccan) invasion.
In 1492 Morocco was under the suzerainty of Turkey — the reason Ferdinand and Isabella had to expel the last Moorish king from Grenada was to ensure there was no back door in Spain to allow a fourth Islamic invasion, this time led by the Turks (i.e. the Turks were about to invade Spain in 1492).
In 1389 the Turks defeated the local Christians (Serbs) and then fought at the Battle of Kosovo Field before going on to conquer Albania, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, parts of the Ukraine: the Arabs invaded Europe from the West and the Turks invaded Europe from the East.
In 1588, the Catholic Spanish Fleet was wiped out in a massive sea battle by the British & Dutch (Protestant) navies. Seventeen years earlier (1571), at the Battle of Lepanto, the Spanish fleet wiped out the Turkish fleet in the Mediterranean — this was the beginning of the end of the Islamic Ottoman Empire) — i.e. until 1571 it was the Turks that controlled the Mediterranean. Indeed, the Turks were at the gates of Vienna for 200 years.
1683 was the beginning of the end of the Turkish siege of Vienna and soon after, following 150 years of Ottoman occupation, the Hungarians were freed and the Romanians were freed. This was a process of hundreds of years of wars and battles and persecutions of the Turks against the Christians.
1902, 1903, and then 1912 was the Third War of the Balkans in which the final borders of Europe were drawn — Turkey was forced back to what is Anatolia and a little across the Dardanelles of what is Turkey today in Europe. The wars with Turkey ended but a century ago. In WWI the Turks were allied with the Germans. Turkey was pushed back out of Europe only a hundred years ago, and this after almost a millennium of control in Eastern Europe.
In 1923, during the great Greco-Turkish war in which Atatürk defeated Venizelos, the population of Greece was 10 million Christians and the population of Islamic Turkey was 10 million. Today, in the 21st century, the population of Greece is 10 million Christians (just as it was 100 years ago) but the Islamic Turks are 70 million. In 1974, the Turks came and occupied 40% of Cyprus. Turkey has its eyes set on Cyprus. Turkey has its eyes set on Eastern Greece. 100,000 Turkic Muslims currently live in Eastern Greece.
Bill Clinton supported the wrong side in the Balkan wars, with the break-up of the former Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia: Bill Clinton supported the Muslims in Bosnia at the expense of the Serbs (Christians), allies of the Jews and Christians in WW1 and WW2. Then the Clinton administration supported the Albanian Muslims in Kosovo, who basically invaded (over centuries) Serb land. And so today, thanks to Bill Clinton, there is not one Islamic Republic in Europe but three — Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo. The fourth Islamic Republic will be Macedonia (today 40% Muslim) because the US supports the Muslims (because the Muslims have the oil, the petrodollars, and the numbers).
The Christians, the Serbs, the Macedonians, and the Israelis are to be sacrificed because they don’t have the oil, they don’t have the petrodollars, they don’t have the money.
Turkey used to reach the Adriatic Coast (i.e. Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Greece were all part of Turkey) just across from Italy. The Turks dream to return to their conquest. Morocco, Algeria, the whole African Coast was once part of Turkey. Turkey was an empire that went from the Atlantic all the way to China.
Xinjiang province, a desert area full of oil [and] making up one-sixth of China, has a majority Turkic population — the Ouigours, Turkic Muslims with their capital in Urumqi. The Islamic world today is supporting an irredentist [advocating the restoration to their country of any territory formerly belonging to it] rebellion by these Turkic Muslims in China to break away from China and form a new country called East Turkistan. To add to the six republics that broke away from Russia, the Islamic plan is to have a seventh Islamic republic to break away from China.
Togarmah: Togarmah the brother of Ashkenaz has been identified with the region of Tilgarimu just north and northeast of Cilicia in southeast Turkey of today.T he Hitties called this region Tegarama. Later Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor) was conquered by Turkish-speaking groups who imposed their language and aspects of their culture. They became the Turks of Turkey. Physically most of them were descended from the previous inhabitants of the area. Not only that, but the Turkish Tribes themselves who had emerged from Central Asia were also associated with Togarmah. Some of them may even have once emerged from Anatolia and gone northward. Depictions of Ancient Hittites show some to have been of Nordic type appearance, others Armenoid, and still others Mongoloid.
Togarmah: which is all bone
Togarmah: a son of Gomer, of the family of Japheth, and brother of Ashkenaz and Riphath. (Genesis 10:3) His descendants became a people engaged in agriculture, breeding horses and mules to be sold in Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:14) They were also a military people, well skilled in the use of arms. Togarmah was probably the ancient name of Armenia.
Togarmah: A descendant of Japheth, Genesis 10:3, supposed to have given his name to the region of Asia afterwards called Armenia, Ezekiel 38:15,16. It was celebrated for its horses and mules; and the men of Togarmah, like the modern Armenians, were an industrious, peaceable, and trafficking people, Ezekiel 27:14.
Togarmah: (1.) A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Genesis 10:3). (2.) A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre (Ezek. 27:14; 38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1).
Togarmah: to-gar’-ma (togharmah; Thorgama, Thergama, Thurgama, Thurgaba; Vulgate (Jerome’s Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Thorgoma):
1. Its Forms: A Suggested Identification:The 3rd son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, his brothers being Ashkenaz and Riphath (Genesis 10:3). The meaning of the name is doubtful. Grimm (Gesch. deutsch. Sprache, II, 325) suggests Sanskr. toka, “tribe,” and arma = Armenia. Etymological and other difficulties stand in the way of French Delitzsch’s identification of Togarmah with the Assyrian Til-garimmu, “hill of Garimmu,” or, possibly, “of the bone-heap,” a fortress of Melitene, on the borders of Tabal (Tubal).
2. Probably Armenia or a Tract Connected Therewith: In Ezekiel 27:14 Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in 38:6 it is said to have supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia). In the Assyrian inscriptions horses came from Kusu (neighborhood of Cappadocia), Andia and Mannu, to the North of Assyria. Both Kiepert and Dillmann regard Togarmah as having been Southeastern Armenia, and this is at present the general opinion. The ancient identification of their country with Togarmah by the Armenians, though correct, is probably due to the Septuagint transposition of “g” and “r” (Thorgama for Togarmah), which has caused them to see therein the name of Thorgom, father of Haik, the founder of their race (Moses of Khor, I, 4, secs. 9-11). Ezekiel 27:14 (Swete) alone has “g” before “r”: Thaigrama. The name “Armenia” dates from the 5th century B.C.
T. G. Pinches
Meta. Strength and a drawing, centralizing force and energy, but of the outer man rather than of the inner spiritual understanding and therefore carried to the point of very great hardness and selfishness (centralizing energy, gravitation, density, compactness, bony, hard, strong). The statement, “They of the house of Togarmah” traded for the wares of Tyre “with horses and war-horses and mules” (Ezek. 27:14), signifies that this strong, drawing, concentrating energy lays hold of the vital forces of man’s being and uses them for the keeping up of that in consciousness which Tyre represents. (See TYRE.)
2. Descendants of Gomer’s son Togarmah and the region they occupied. In Ezekiel’s dirge concerning Tyre, Togarmah is mentioned as the source of “horses and steeds and mules,” for which Tyre traded certain goods. (Eze 27:2, 14) The same prophet lists Togarmah among Gog of Magog’s allies and gives its situation as among the peoples of “the remotest parts of the north.”—Eze 38:6.
Many commentators connect Togarmah with the Armenians. The Armenians themselves traditionally claim to be descended from “Haik, son of Thorgom.” Ancient Greek writers speak of the Armenians as famed for their horses and mules.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854)
William Smith, LLD, Ed.
- Genesis 10:3 | View whole chapter | See verse in context
- And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
- 1 Chronicles 1:6 | View whole chapter | See verse in context
- And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
- Ezekiel 27:14 | View whole chapter | See verse in context
- They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and mules.
- Ezekiel 38:6 | View whole chapter | See verse in context
- Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee.
10:3 Togarmah. Togarmah is probably the ancestor of the Armenians. The Jewish Targums say that Germany was derived from Togarmah. The name may also have a connection with Turkey and Turkestan.
Togarmah in the Bible
Son of Gomer
- Genesis 10:3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
- 1 Chronicles 1:6 And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
- Ezekiel 27:14 They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and mules.
- Ezekiel 38:6 Gomer, and all his bands; the house of Togarmah of the north quarters, and all his bands: and many people with thee.
TogarmahSon of Gomer and name of a region of Asia Minor (Genesis 10:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:6 ; compare Beth-togarmah, Ezekiel 38:6 ) inhabited by his descendants. Togarmah was famed for its horses (Ezekiel 27:14 ). This site is likely modern Gurun 70 miles west of Malatya or an area in Armenia.
These dictionary topics are from the Holman Bible Dictionary, published by Broadman & Holman, 1991. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman & Holman.
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for ‘Togarmah’. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/hbd/t/togarmah.html. 1991.
- Togarmah – McClintock and Strong Biblical Cyclopedia
- An In Depth Look at the Modern Equivalent to Biblical Names in Ezek. 38: A Bible Study by Jack Kelley – long tom radio
Khazars Ashkenazim and Togarmah, Mavi Boncuk – Cornucopia of Ottomania and Turcomania