The Magogites, according to Josephus, were later known to the Greeks as Scythians (Herodotus: Skythai). The Scythians have since come to be identified with the Aschenazi — the Ashguz (Ashkuz) of Assyrian inscription. More likely, according to Bill Cooper, is that “early Magogites were assimilated into the peoples of Ashchenaz and thus making up merely a part of the Scythian hordes.”

Early Irish Celts, furthermore, trace their ancestry from Japheth through Magog. [To crystallise the mental picture, see this image at Brit-Am.] In the map (directly) below Ashkenaz is equated with the Phrygians, between the Black and Mediterranean Seas.

The World as known to the Hebrews – Historical Textbook and Atlas of Biblical Geography (1854) by Lyman Coleman [Public Domain]
The descendants of Ashchenaz first settled in modern-day Armenia. In later Jewish writings, Gomer and his son (Aschenaz) were associated with the Germanic races, and Germanic Jews are to this day known as Ashkenazim. In the 7th century (BC), the Askuza  joined forces with the revolting Mannai. Here Biblical (Jer 51:27) and Assyrian inscription overlap.

“Kerkenes” emaze at

Other early sources confirm their place of settlement to be the area later known as Pontus and Bythinia, where the peoples of Ashchenaz gave their name to the lake and harbour of Ascanius, and to the land of Ascania. Josephus tells us that they were subsequently known to the Greeks as the Rheginians.

The Jews in Central Europe (1881) – Richard Andree (1835–1912) [Image: Wikimedia Commons]
The name “Magog” appears five times in five verses in the Bible (WebBible Encyclopedia):

Gen 10:2 — The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

The verse in Chronicles mirrors that of Genesis:

1 Chr 1:5 — The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

In Ezekiel, Gog of the land of Magog is also the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, both of which we identify with Turkey:

Ezek 38:2 — Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him,

Ezek 39:6 — And I will send a fire on Magog, and among them that dwell carelessly in the isles: and they shall know that I am the LORD.

In the Apocalypse (this is during the Millennial reign, well after the War of Gog and Magog has concluded), we have more the imagery of a multitude of peoples rather than one land:

Rev 20:8 —  And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea.

[Ed: the word Magog simply means “land of Gog”, which is rather non-specific in terms of trying to locate it. The better option, it would seem, would be to try and work out who Gog is, and from there extrapolate to the land(s) or peoples involved].

Magog was a grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:2), whose descendants settled to the far north of Israel, likely in Europe and northern Asia (Ezekiel 38:2). Magog seems to be used to refer to “northern barbarians” in general, but likely also has a connection to Magog the person. The people of Magog are described as skilled warriors (Ezekiel 38:15; 39:3-9). —Got Questions

In End Times’ parlance, Gog u Magog (Gog of Magog) is a reference to the antichrist (gospels, 1 John, 2 John, 2 Thessalonians, book of Revelation) king of the north (book of Daniel, chapters 11 and 12). There are various understandings of just how far “north” this means—from Turkey to Europe and Russia. Turkey—because of all the other Turkic peoples implicated in Ezekiel 38, such as Meshech, Tubal, Togarmah—and/or eastern Europe seem implicated, rather than Russia. But it may be someone connected to these lands by extension (i.e. one who comes in the name of “Rome”), rather than inhabiting them: someone who will lead a unified force that may consist of Turkey and Europe—ergo European Union (EU), NATO, perhaps a Mediterranean Union, and a more tenuous connection may be to the United Nations (UN) still.


A fresh water glacial lake, located between Newport, Vermont, United States and Magog, Quebec, Canada, named Lake Memphremagog for “large expanse of water” or “large lake” in the local traditional Abenaki language . [The English word “skunk“, attested in New England in the 1630s, for instance, is probably borrowed from the Abenaki seganku]. This points perhaps to the origin of the word “magog” in reference to a large expanse of water. In biblical imagery, any reference to water or many waters may implicate a large number of peoples and nations, particularly those of evil inclination. In this sense, Gog is less a ruler of a land than chief of the “evil masses”.

Further Reading
Featured Image

An illustration from the Birds’ Head Haggadah, c. 1300, illustration of the Book of Exodus, Menachem Parchment. [The image is in the Public Domain and is provided by User:Seforim, Wikimedia Commons]


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