Rome

A FOURTH KINGDOM — The Terrible Beast

Preamble …

It is en vogue to label all things Islamic as relating to the end-time Beast system and, further, to say that one of the legs of iron of Nebuchadnezzar’s statue represents the Islamic caliphates of the Middle Ages up to and including the Ottoman, which fell but a century ago. Not to dismiss it — that interpretation is not without merit — but we will resist that line of inquiry in this short history.

Introduction

Emerging from an 8th century BCE small town on the Tiber River, Rome came to dominate the Mediterranean, continental Europe, and Britain. While the empire is long gone (at least nominally), could the ‘eternal city’ — the city that sits on seven hills — days’ also be numbered?

[See Daniel chapter 2 and chapter 7 of The Holy Bible (KJV)]

40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise. 41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay. 42 And [as] the toes of the feet [were] part of iron, and part of clay, [so] the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken. 43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay.

7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns. 8 I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots:and, behold, in this horn [were] eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things.

Myth and Legend

Ancestor twins of a Trojan prince who fled to and ultimately fought and conquered tribes of the central Italian peninsula, Romulus and Remus argue over the rights to the city’s name. And in the end, and as is so often the case, siblicide won out circa 753 BCE.

Capitoline Wolf — When Amulius overthrew his brother and grandfather to the twins Romulus and Remus,  Numitor, the former ordered the twins to be cast into the Tiber River. They were rescued by a she-wolf who cared for them until a herdsman, Faustulus, found and raised them. [Wikipedia]

A Republic is Born

A dynastic run of seven kings saw victory over the northern Etruscans, before populous uprising led to the formation of a representative ruling senate. The senate, hitherto an advisory body to the king, was now the hub of res publica (“public affairs” or “matters of the state”). The senate appointed a consul who ruled for a year at a time. Society evolved into a four-fold structure: owned slaves; free but relatively powerless plebeians; wealthy equestrians (knights); and the all-powerful patricians (nobles).

Increasing military systematisation brought a crucial modification to the traditional Greek phalanx war unit — the revolutionary maniple. In this manner, the Roman Republic spanned five hundred years (510 – 23 BCE). The greatest challenge to Roman authority at this time lay across the Mediterranean, with Carthage. The unpredictable General Hannibal [the Great] crossed the Great Sea with war-elephants, invading the Italian peninsula across the Alps to her north. But by 146 BCE, Carthage had been completely destroyed.

On his own volition, the Roman senator and general, Julius Caesar, conquers the vast territory of the Gaul’s to the north. In 49 BCE, literally crossing the Rubicon, he famously moves on Rome to gain authoritarian rule. He campaigns south as far as Egypt. There he marries Cleopatra, the last of the Ptolemy (from the Macedonian lineage of one of the four generals who ruled after Alexander’s death).

A political assassination in the Roman senate, Caesar’s exploits will be preserved in posterity in the calendar (until the switch to the Gregorian in 1582 — albeit with a month still named after him). Rome now sees her rule passed on through a series of emperors.

From here, her fate — and that of the known world — is intimately tied to internal as well as external warring.

The Roman Empire

Imperial Rome

RomanEmpire_117_svg

The empire officially starts with Gaius Julius Caesar’s successor — Gaius Octavius (Augustus).

Regnal Dates of the Roman Emperors (from Livius.org)

Note: Emperors of Gaul and Palmyra are not shown

First Century

  • 44 BC – 14 AD: Augustus (natural death) —
  • 14 – 37 AD: Tiberius (natural death) —
  • 37 – 41 AD: Caligula (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 41 – 54 AD: Claudius (poisoned) —
  • 54 – 68 AD: Nero (suicide) —
  • 68 – 69 AD: Galba (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Jan – Dec 69 AD: Vitellius (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Jan – April 69: Otho (suicide) —
  • 69 – 79 AD: Vespasian  (natural death) —
  • Spring – Summer 70: Julius Sabinus (executed) —
  • 79 – 81 AD: Titus (natural death) —
  • 81 – 96 AD: Domitian (murdered by courtiers) —
  • 96 – 98 AD: Nerva (natural death) —
  • Trajan 98 – 117 AD: Trajan (natural death) —

Second Century

  • 117 – 138 AD: Hadrian (natural death) —
  • 136 – 138 AD: Lucius Aelius (natural death) —
  • 138 – 161 AD: Antoninus Pius (natural death) —
  • 161 – 180 AD: Marcus Aurelius (natural death) —
  • 161 – 169: Lucius Verus (natural death) —
  • April – July 175 AD: Avidius Cassius (murdered by officers) —
  • 180 – 192 AD: Commodus (murdered by courtiers) —
  • Jan — Mar 193 AD: Pertinax (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Mar – June 193: Didius Julianus (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 193 – 211 AD: Septimius Severus (natural death) —
  • 193 – 194 AD: Pescennius Niger (executed) —
  • 193 – 197 AD: Clodius Albinus (killed in action) —

Third Century

  • 193 – 211 AD: Septimius Severus
  • 211 – 217 AD: Caracalla (murdered by Macrinus) —
  • Feb – Dec 211: Geta (murdered by Caracalla) —
  • 217 – 218 AD: Macrinus (executed) —
  • 217 – 218 AD: Diadumenianus (executed) —
  • 218 – 222 AD: Heliogabalus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 222 – 235 AD: Severus Alexander (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 235 – 238 AD: Maximinus Thrax (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 1 Jan – 20 Jan 238 AD: Gordian I (suicide) —
  • 1 Jan – 20 Jan 238 AD: Gordian II (killed in action) —
  • Feb – May 238 AD: Balbinus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Feb – May 238 AD: Pupienus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 238 – 244 AD: Gordian III (killed in action) —
  • 244 – 249 AD: Phillipus the Arab (killed in action) —
  • 249 – 251 AD: Decius (killed in action) —
  • Jun – Jul 251 AD: Hostilianus (plague) —
  • 251 – 253 AD: Trebonian the Gaul (lynched by soldiers) —
  • Aug – Oct 253: Aemilian (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 253 – 260 AD: Valerian (died in captivity) —
  • 253 – 268 AD: Gallienus (murdered by soldiers) —
  • 268 — 270 AD: Claudius II Gothicus (natural death) —
  • Sep 270 AD: Quintillus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 270 – 275 AD: Aurelian (murdered by his secretary) —
  • 275 – 276 AD: Tacitus (uncertain) —
  • Jul — Sep 276 AD: Florian (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 276 – 282 AD: Probus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 282 – 283 AD: Carus (struck by lightning) —
  • 283 – 285 AD: Carinus (killed by an officer) —
  • 283 – 284 AD: Numerian (murdered by his father-in-law) —
  • 284 – 305 AD: Diocletian (resigned) —
  • 286 – 305 AD: Maximian (resigned) —

Fourth Century

  • 305 – 306: Constantius I Chlorus (natural death) —
  • 305 – 311: Galerius (natural death) —
  • 306 — 307: Severus (murdered) —
  • 306 – 337: Constantine the Great (natural death) —
  • 306 – 312: Maxentius (killed in action) —
  • 306 – 308: Maximian (taken captive, suicide) —
  • 308 – 324: Licinius (executed) —
  • 310 – 313: Maximinus Daia (natural death) —
  • 337 – 340: Constantine II (killed in action) —
  • 337 – 350: Constans (murdered by courtiers) —
  • 337 — 361: Constantius II (natural death) —
  • 360 – 363: Julian the Apostate (killed in action) —
  • 364 – 375: Valentinian I (natural death) —
  • 364 – 378: Valens (killed in action) —
  • 367 – 383: Gratian (murdered by Magnus Maximus) —
  • 375 – 392: Valentinian II (murdered by his general Arbogast) —
  • 379 – 395: Theodosius I (natural death) —
  • 383 – 388: Magnus Maximus (executed) —
  • 383 – 408: Arcadius (natural death) —
  • 393 – 423: Honorius (natural death) —

Fifth Century (West)

  • 393 – 423: Honorius (natural death) —
  • 423 – 425: Valentinian III (murdered) —
  • Mar – May 455: Petronius Maximus (lynched by soldiers) —
  • 455 – 456: Avitus (resigned) —
  • 457 – 461: Majorian (resigned) —
  • 461 – 465: Libius Severus (murdered) —
  • 467 – 472: Anthemius (murdered by Ricimer) —
  • Apr – Nov 472: Olybrius (natural death) —
  • 473 – 474: Glycerius
  • 474 – 475: Julius Nepos (forced to resign and made bishop) —
  • 475 – 476: Romulus Augustulus (forced to resign) —

Byzantine

  • Arcadius
  • Theodosius II
  • Marcian
  • Leo I Thrax Magnus
  • Leo II
  • Zeno I
  • Anastasius I
  • Justin I
  • Justinian I
  • Justin II
  • Tiberius II
  • Maurice
  • Phocas
  • Heraclius

From Augustus to Constantine the Great

Augustus adds much territory to the empire during a golden age of otherwise peace and prosperity. Claudius conquers Britain, Titus destroys Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem (ca. 70 AD), Trajan extends the empire to its zenith, and Hadrian walls off an increasingly too-large-to-defend empire in northern Britain from barbarians. Diocletian split the empire into east and west before it is reunited under Constantine, with its capital Byzantium (present-day Constantinople), following his epiphany before the Battle of Milvian Bridge. He then officiates the Council of Nicaea.

Barbarians at the Gate: fall of Rome

Meanwhile, increasing hordes of barbarians breach the empire to the north (before Odoacer finally conquers Rome in AD 476), while the eastern half of the empire survives another thousand years. Its last great emperor is credited with the eponymous Justinian (law) Code and the Santa Sophia church. But the final Emperor, Constantine XI, dies at the hands of the Ottomans who take the city and with it the empire, introducing the world to its caliphate.

Romeinse-rijk-3e-2e-eeuw-vC-Access-Foundation_christipedia.nl

Time-line:

ROMAN EMPIRE IN PSHOP copy photo ROMANEMPIREINPSHOPcopy.jpg

Timeline_of_the_Roman_Empire_by_RyukonoTsuki Roman Empire Timeline


Rome in the End of Days
  • Numbers 24:12-19
  • Ezekiel chapter 35
  • The Book of Joel, chapter 4
  • Amos 1:11-12
  • The Book of Obadiah

References
Appendix

Mystery Babylon

In the Garden of Eden, possibly an allusion to ancient Jerusalem, lived the first man created, Adam.

God blew the breath of life into him and so body (clay) and breath (spirit) begat a living individual – a soul, a human.

From Adam’s rib God created woman, Eve.

It didn’t take too long for a newly evicted and fallen hero, Satan, the serpent, to come up against God’s creation.

And the dragon has been doing it ever since.

From the original sin of Adam and Eve, to the homicide by Cain, to the antediluvian apostasy – a brief ‘shower’ to cleanse the world of disobedience and malevolence – only to be followed by Ham’s indiscretion with respect to his father Noah and the cursing of Ham’s youngest, Canaan.

Unable to bear life amongst the righteous, Canaan’s stock moved east and founded the plain of Sharon.

But rather than going forth (spreading out) to divide, the Canaanites conglomerated into the first metropolis – the first city, Babylonia, had been created.

And rather than spreading out they spread up; and built themselves a tower and began licentiousness and sexual perversions.

Babylon was rotten from the outset. It was founded by a rotten core – a band of deviants; who by now were so many in number and so ignominious in pursuit, that The Lord intervened causing mass confusion by appropriating Babylon’s inhabitants with multiple different tongues.

Indeed, the Tower of Babel came to symbolise such confusion.

This act of God averted the destruction of the world — or at least delayed it by 4000 years.

Some 2000 years after the world’s first city, another city was being born.

Equally depraved, this city was founded by twin brothers who where, as the story goes, suckled by a she wolf and then raised by a harlot.

Just as Cain killed his brother Abel, so too sleighed Romulus his brother Remus. With a bastardly group of murderous thieves, Romulus founded the city of Rome; the city destined to follow in Babylon’s footsteps.

After the crucifixion of our Messiah Jesus Christ, his brother and the apostles, emboldened by the resurrection, preached the Word that marked the very beginning of the church, referred to as the bride of Christ, that we know as Christianity.

But again, the serpent was nearby; always at God’s heels! And the very earliest church was infiltrated by the likes of Simon “Magus” the Sorcerer and others of eastern spiritualism (notably Zoroastrianism and Persian Mithraism).

And the history of the church is one of persecution – and as much from within as without.

As the Roman Empire moved eastward to Byzantium, the western part of the empire was left (apparently officially by Emperor Constantine though the document was later proved to be a forgery no less) to the local Bishop of Rome’s discretion.

The Bishop of Rome gave himself a new title, Pope, and from there began a 1000 year reign of unparalleled corruption, criminality, cruelty, debauchery, terror and warfare, and moral depravity known biblically as the Apostasy but secularised as the “Dark Ages”. The Fourth Beast of Revelation.

As the veil was slowly lifted from Medieval Europe, the Enlightenment blossomed out of the French Tevolution which saw one of Napolean’s Generals marched into Rome taking the Pope captive and effectively ending this 1000 year reign.

The Papacy had received a mortal wound. But in an amazing revival and with some pressure on the then king, the Papacy arose, and blackmailing the king of England, bought the Crown Jewels of which it owns to this day.

The sovereign head of the United Kingdom is the Roman Catholic Pope, to which the queen is a subject!

Having reestablished itself as a power, it continued to grow, especially behind the scenes. To this end it was aided and hand it’s hand in many revolutions, secret societies, nobles and politicians, from the Russian Revolution to the fall of communism, from the apostasy of the Jesuit-backed Illuminati and Freemasonry against the backdrop of an otherwise pious New World.

Now, having been overrun by these not-so-secret societies, the US has the infamy of being the likely Image of the Beast of Revelation.

Babylon and Rome. “Come out of her my people”!

In Jesus’ name,

History of Rome

The early days of Rome stand in stark contrast to its later greatness. To say the empire came from humble roots would be a gross understatement and entirely misleading. Founded by a man who killed his own brother and was raised by a whore; the cities initial inhabitants were thieves, crooks and beggars; such an unappealing lot that they could not find a single woman that would have them, they resorted to kidnapping; to protect their ill-gotten wives they then proceeded to make war on their in-laws. There is not a single sympathetic figure in the whole bunch. You almost find yourself rooting for the Etruscans to put this rabble down and restore some decency to the world. But alas, the Romans were strong and would not be conquered, even if they where total bastards. And this is the moral of Rome’s birth. The Romans won and grew and thrived, not because they were right or good or moral or god’s chosen people, but because they were strong and knew how to win battles. Might may not make right, but it will make a thousand–year civilisation.

 
Excerpt from The History of Rome by Mike Duncan, podcast number 2: Youthful Indiscretions